Glossary

Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter.

A

ADAM

ADaptation And Mitigation Strategies: supporting European climate policy

AERONET

Aerosol Robotik Network

AUTH

The Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH) is the largest University in Greece with more than 70000 students and covers a very large number of scientific disciplines. The Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics (LAP) belongs to the Physics Department and consists of 5 permanent senior academic scientists, 5 post-doc and 8 PhD students. AUTH operates two Brewer spectrophotometers for the monitoring of total ozone already since the 80s, has recently developed its own MAX-DOAS instrument. It operates a UV-B monitoring network in Greece and hosts the WMO Ozone Mapping Centre for the Northern Hemisphere, which receives daily in real-to-real time preliminary total ozone data from around 100 ground based total ozone observing stations. AUTH hosts the GOME-2 validation site within EUMETSAT's O3MSAF. LAP has its own air quality modelling team and has developed its own computer and storage facilities.

AVHRR

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

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B

BBDR

Spectral BroadBand Directional Reflectance

BC

Brockmann Consult GmbH (BC) is a private company, founded in 2002, and offering environmental data products and services. The company is actively involved in the service provision and software development for Earth Observation data management and processing. BC has two branches: Environmental Informatics and Geoinformation Services, which complement each other. The objective of Environmental Informatics is the development of custom made software solutions for environmental data. A major part of the activities of BC is system development for Earth Observation Processing Systems.

BHR

Bi- Hemispherical Reflectance

BigFoot

MODIS validation sites

BRDF

Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function

BSRN

Baseline surface radiation network

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C

cal/val

calibration and/or validation

CCI

ESA: Climate Change Initiative

CDR

Climate Data Records

CEOS

Commitee on Earth Observation Systems

CEOS WGCV

CEOS Working Group Calibration and Validation

CGI

CGI is a global solutions company providing IT and business consulting, systems integration, software development and systems engineering, IT services and business process outsourcing. We employ approximately 72,000 staff world-wide operating in more than 40 countries. We support clients across diverse markets including Space, Defence, Government, Energy, Utilities, Telecommunications, Commercial and Finance. We have 30 years experience in the Earth Observation (EO) domain, developing meteorological, environmental monitoring, data management and operational image processing systems for a wide range of clients. Our responsibilities have ranged from engineering Prime for front end data acquisition through to EO data exploitation within decision support systems and cartographic production environments. We apply system engineering experience and best practice from the many sectors that we operate in, using them to benefit our EO activities.

CGMS

Coordination group of Meteorological Satellites

CHARM(e)

FP-7: Characterisation of Metadata (for high-quality climate applications and services)

CHIMERE

Regional Chemical Transport Model

CINDI

Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments

CLI

Command Line Interface

CMIP5

Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5

CO

Carbon monoxide (an ECV)

CORE-CLIMAX

FP-7: COordinating Earth observation data validation for RE-analysis for CLIMAte ServiceS

CSIC

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC - The Spanish National Research Council) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe. Belonging to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the Secretary of State for Research, its main objective is to develop and promote research that will help bring about scientific and technological progress, and it is prepared to collaborate with Spanish and foreign entities in order to achieve this aim. CSIC has 6% of all the staff dedicated to Research and Development in Spain, and they generate approximately 20% of all scientific production in the country.

CTM

Chemical Transport Model

CYCLOPES

FP5 project; CYCling of Phosphorus in the Mediterranean: Estimation of biogeophysical variables (LAI, FAPAR, FCover)

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D

DANDELIONS

Dutch Aerosol and Nitrogen Dioxide Experiments for vaIIdation of OMI and SCIAMACHY

DCC

Deep Convective Cloud

DHR

Direct Hemispherical Reflectance also dark sky"

DR

Directional Reflectance

DUE GlobAlbedo

Data User Element, a programm of ESA; GlobAlbedo: a project in this programme

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E

EC

European Commission

ECMWF

European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast

ECV

Essential Climate Variable

EEA

European Environmental Agency

ENES

FP-7: InfraStructure for the European Network for the Earth System Modelling

EO

Earth Observation

EPS-SG

EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation

ERA-CLIM

FP-7: European Reanalysis of Global Climate Observations

ESA

European Space Agency

EUM

EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites)

EUMETSAT

The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is an international organisation, founded in 1986, currently with 27 European Member States (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom) and 4 Co-operating States (Bulgaria, Iceland, Lithuania, and Serbia). The main purpose of EUMETSAT is to deliver weather and climate-related satellite data, images and products, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. This information is supplied to the National Meteorological Services of the organisation's Member and Cooperating States in Europe, as well as other users world-wide. Regarding climate variability and change studies, EUMETSAT's mission is to provide satellite-based Climate Data Records over decades with the highest possible level of accuracy, reliability and stability as approved by a Council Resolution in June 2009. EUMETSAT has a long history of ensuring best product quality and timeliness for their users.

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F

FAPAR

Fraction of absorbed photosynthetic radiation (an ECV)

FastOpt

FastOpt GmbH (FastOpt) is a company founded at Hamburg in February 2000 by Drs. Ralf Giering and Thomas Kaminski. Both are experts in inverse modelling/retrievals, data assimilation, quantitative mission design and Automatic Differentiation (AD) and are working full time as senior consultants. Staff includes further consultants, Michael Voßbeck and Dr. Simon Blessing, working full time. FastOpt specialises in two lines of business: First, they provide AD tools. Second, they carry out scientific projects for/with their customers. Their customers/partners include agencies and research institutes such as NASA-GSFC, NASA-JPL, the NOAA, Harvard University, the Max-Planck-Institutes in Hamburg and Jena, or the MIT as well a industrial companies such as The Boeing Company, Renault Formula 1, or Volkswagen AG. FastOpt are experienced in setting up and operating advanced retrieval and assimilation systems for various components of the Earth System. They participated in three FP6, three FP7, six ESA projects plus a number of projects for national funding agencies.

FLUXNET

Network of Eddy flux towers observing land-atmosphere fluxes of CO2, water and energy

FORLI

Fast Optimal Retrievals on Layers for IASI

FORMAT

Formaldehyde as a tracer of (photo)oxidation in the troposphere

FP7

Framework Programme 7

FTIR

Fourier-transform infrared

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G

GAW

Global Atmospheric Watch

GCM

Global Circulation Model

GCMP

GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles

GCOS

Global Climate Observing System

GECA

Generic Environment for Calibration/validation Analysis

GEO

Group on Earth Observation

GEOLAND

EU project on area-wide monitoring of our environment

GEOMS

Generic Earth Observation Metadata Standard

GEOSS

GEO System of Systems

GFCS

Global Framework for Climate Services (of WMO)

GHG

Greenhouse gas (also CCI project)

GLOBCARBON

an ESA project in the DUE programme (see DUE)

GlobEmission

ESA project on global emissions

GMES

Global Monitoring for Environment and Security

GOME / GOME-2

Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (1 and 2)

Govaerts Consulting

Govaerts Consulting has been created in January 2012 and provides high-level scientific and technical expertise in the area of Earth Observation project management, remote sensing, radiative transfer modelling, satellite data calibration and finally inverse modelling. Since its creation, Govaerts Consulting has already provided support to the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) for the preparation of the vicarious calibration of the future proba-V mission, to ESA for the definition of a Sentinel-4 algorithm for the retrieval of surface reflectance in support to atmospheric composition retrieval and finally TO REA as MACC-II rapporteur.

GSICS

Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (WMO)

GTOS/GCOS TOPC

Global Terrestrial Observing System / Global Climate Observing System Terrestrial Observation Panel for Climate

GUI

Graphical User Interface

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H

HCHO

Formaldehyde (an ECV)

HRVIS

High Resolution Visible Imager

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I

IAGOS

In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System

IASB-BIRA

The Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (IASB-BIRA) is a federal scientific research institution created in 1964. Its main tasks are research and public service in space aeronomy. IASB-BIRA has a pioneering expertise in the remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from the ground, balloons, aircraft and satellites. Its Atmospheric Composition Division carries out observational and modelling studies of the troposphere and the stratosphere in relation to climate change and ozone depletion, global air quality, polar processes, and the evolution of greenhouse gases in support of the Kyoto Protocol.

IASI

Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

IMAGES

A Chemical Transport Model

IMECC

Infrastructure for Measurements of the European Carbon Cycle: Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) under FP6

INSPIRE

Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IR

Infrared

IUP-UB

The University of Bremen was founded at the end of the 1960s, and has a student body of around 20 000. It has developed a strong research program in the natural sciences and in 2006 and 2012 was selected as one of the top eleven Universities in Germany. The Institute of Environmental Physics within the Faculty of Physics of the University of Bremen has more than twenty years' experience in remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere, both from ground and from satellites. The institute with currently about 100 members has been successfully involved in a number of EU projects (e.g ESMOS, ESMOS-ARCTIC, SESAME, SCUVS1-3, PRICE, PRIME, THESEOBROMINE, COSE, GODIVA, THESEO-2000-EUROSOLVE, FORMAT, POET, RETRO, QUILT, UFTIR, SOGE, STAR, ACCENT, GEOMON, CITYZEN, NORS, ACCENT-PLUS).

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J

JMA

Japan Meteorological Agency

JRC

The Joint Research Center (JRC) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission, whose mission is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. Through its Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES) in Ispra, the JRC conducts research in various areas related to Earth observation including the development of physically-based retrieval algorithms optical radiometry applied to the remote sensing for the monitoring of the global environment and radiative transfer modelling for the extraction of quantitative surface information from optical remote sensing data. These R&D activities are conducted in order to take advantage of the data acquired by satellite sensors and to generate, in collaboration with the Space Agencies, land essential climate variables (ECVs) as well as higher level environmental products, including their time-dependent changes, in the context of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The quality, reliability and accuracy of satellite products are assessed through in situ benchmarking activities as well as via product comparisons and radiative transfer modelling. JRC has built a solid expertise in terms of development, quality assurance and applications of land surface retrieval algorithms and products to characterise the biosphere at European and global scales.

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K

KNMI

KNMI, a government agency operating under the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, was established in 1854. As an operational institute, KNMI provides weather observations, weather forecasts and vital weather information all year round, 24 hours a day, and 7 days a week. The institute carries out applied and fundamental research in support of its operational tasks and as a global change research centre. KNMI is an active member of large international organisations as WMO, ECMWF, and EUMETSAT. Remote sensing is of great importance to the KNMI. For weather forecasting and for R&D activities satellite observations provide a valuable complement to in-situ measurements. These data are applied for KNMI's own operational meteorological and research tasks but KNMI also provides earth observation products and related services as an aid to the exertion of public tasks.

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L

LAI

Leaf area index (an ECV)

LEO

Low Earth Orbit

LER

Lambertian equivalent reflectivity

LOTOS-Euros

Long Term Ozone Simulation - European Ozone Simulation

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M

MACC

FP-7: Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate

MAXDOAS

Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument

MetEOC

FP-7: Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate

METOP

METeorological Operational satellite: series of three polar orbiting meteorological satellites operated by EUMETSAT

MOPITT

Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere satellite

MOZAIC

Measurement of Ozone, Water. Vapour, Carbon Monoxide, and Nitrogen Oxides by Airbus In-Service Aircraft

MPG

The Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (MPI-C, Mainz) focuses on the chemistry of the atmosphere. The satellite remote sensing group, led by Prof. Thomas Wagner, retrieves global data sets of tropospheric and stratospheric trace gases, aerosol and cloud properties from spectrally resolving UV/Vis satellite instruments. The group develops spectral analysis algorithms and performs 3D simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer. The group is also operating several ground based MAX-DOAS instruments for satellite ground validation. The Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M, Hamburg) is dedicated to fundamental climate research. The overall mission of MPI-M is to understand how physical, chemical, and biological processes contribute to the dynamics of the Earth system. Among the tools used are advanced numerical models that simulate the dynamics of all components of the Earth System and their interactions. MPI-M has developed a comprehensive Earth system model, MPI-ESM, which is made available to the scientific community in Europe and elsewhere.

MPI-ESM

Max Planck Institute Earth System Model

MTG

Meteosat Third Generation

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N

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASA MISR

Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer

NASA MODIS

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

NASA NEWS

NASA Energy and Water cycle Study Programme

NDACC

Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change

NDVI

Normalised Difference Vegetation Index

NIR/SIR

Near infrared/shortwave infrared

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide (an ECV)

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NORS

FP-7: Network of remote Sensing Ground-Based Observations in support of the GMES Atmospheric Service

NPL

The National Physical Laboratory is a world-leading centre in the development and application of accurate measurement techniques, standards and uncertainty analysis. As the UK's national metrology institute, NPL underpins the UK measurement system, ensuring consistency and traceability of measurements throughout the UK (and many institutes around the world) establishing and disseminating the SI system of units. NPL offers a unique range of measurement services, contract research, consultancy and training services. Its expertise in assessing and analysing uncertainty is second to none and its experts chair committees developing international standards. Building on its experience, NPL recently launched the Centre for Carbon Measurement, whose mission is to support QA and metrology aspects of climate science, assess low carbon technologies, and underpin future carbon tax and regulation. NPL is internationally recognised as leading the metrology communities' efforts to support the needs of the EO/climate community, representing them on many committees, e.g. WMO, CEOS. It provides traceability for pre-flight and post-launch calibration of sensors and increasingly products, developing new methods and standards. Its validation spans all domains; optical, microwave, atmospheric composition, Land & Ocean.

NWP

Numerical weather prediction

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O

O3MSAF

EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring

OCLI

Sentinel-3 instrument: Ocean and Land Colour Imager

OLIVE

On Line Interactive Validation Exercise (CEOS)

OMI

Ozone Monitoring Instrument

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P

PASODOBLE

FP-7: Promote Air quality Services integrating Observations - Development Of Basic Localised Information for Europe

PDF

probability distribution function

PEGASOS

Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls Climate Interaction Study, EU funded project

PI

Principal Investigator

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Q

QA

Quality Assurance

QA4ECV

Quality Assurance for ECVs

QA4EO

Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation

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S

S[&]T

Science & Technology Corporation (S[&]T) is a private company and SME, based in Delft, conducting high-tech software projects and consultancy. S[&]T has a history and proven track record of successfully participating in many complex software projects (both production and research, both proprietary and open source) for clients such as the European Space Agency (ESA), NATO, major European Space industries, and scientific research institutes (TNO, Astron). Other clients S[&]T has worked for include the Dutch Army, ASML, Shell, KNMI, and IBM. One of the core lines of business of S[&]T is to develop scientific and technical software in a variety of domains. These systems often require extreme performance, accuracy and may involve huge datasets. Typical applications are scientific data analysis and (3D) visualisation, quality monitoring and reporting (e.g. for satellite mission data), and (ubiquitous) sensor networks.

SAF

EUMETSAT: Satellite Application Facility

SCIAMACHY

SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (on ENVISAT)

SCOPE-CM

(WMO): Sustained Coordinated Processing of Environmental satellite data for Climate Monitoring

SDR

Surface Directional Reflectance

SeaWiFS

Sea viewing wide field of view sensor (NASA ocean colour satellite)

SENTINELS

GMES satellites

SI

Système international d'unités (SI), International System of Units

SLSTR

Sentinel-3 instrument: Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

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T

TCCON

Total Carbon Column Observing Network

TIP

Two-stream Inversion-Package

TM5

Tracer Model 5, global 3-D chemical transport model

ToA

Top of Atmosphere

TOC

Top-Of-Canopy

TROPOMI

Tropospheric Ozone Monitoring Instrument

TU/e

The Fluid Dynamics Lab of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) is increasingly involved in the application of satellite observations to better understand systems where fluid dynamics and transport phenomena play an important role, such as the atmosphere. The ongoing Dutch Scientific Foundation (NWO) VIDI-project titled 'Attributing the sources of tropospheric ozone from space' embodies this activity, and currently involves 2 Ph.D-students and 2 Postdocs using satellite data to improve understanding of pollutant emissions and processes in the atmosphere. At TU/e, colleagues Prof. Toschi and Dr. van de Wiel are also involved in atmospheric research, Toschi through his computational efforts on aerosol dynamics, and Van de Wiel through his research on boundary layer turbulence. Dr. Verstraeten also holds an affiliation with KNMI.

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U

UCL

UCL was founded in 1826, having been the first higher educational institution founded outside of Oxford and Cambridge. The Department of Space and Climate Physics is part of University College London and occupies premises in central London and mainly at the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), located in the Surrey Hills near London. The Department undertakes frontline research in Climate Physics, Imaging, High Energy Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics and Photon and Particle Detection Systems. It has been carrying out space-oriented scientific research since the 1960s, including the design, manufacture and testing of hardware for rocket and satellite-based scientific missions, the development of related software and data processing systems, and the modelling, analysis and interpretation of scientific data from its own and other instruments. The Imaging Group has a 14-blade (224-core) linux cluster along with 0.5Pb of data store. The Laboratory has designed and built instruments for more than 37 orbiting spacecraft and 200 sounding rockets. As the UK's largest and best university space physics institute, it employs 170 people including electronic, mechanical and software engineering groups. UCL Geography is the second UCL-based partner and is in the top group of geography departments in the UK in every national research review. UCL-G has access to a 160-core cluster and UCL Legion (~50 TerraFlops) shared between several departments.

ULB

The Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) has 13 faculties, schools and specialized institutes that cover all the disciplines, closely combining academic input and research. The ULB is an active member of the Research Area and is involved in almost 130 projects financed by the 7th European Framework Programmes. Over the past few years, it has obtained 7 starting Grants as well as 2 Advanced Grants from the European Research Area (ERC). Three Nobel Prizes, one Fields Medal, three Wolf Prizes and two Marie Curie Prizes are further evidence of the University's longstanding tradition of excellence. The Atmospheric Spectroscopy group at ULB is part of the Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique in the Chemistry Department. It has a recognized expertise in experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy. The group currently counts 13 researchers, including 5 PhD students. The principal activities in the group are related to the remote-sensing of composition from satellites. The researchers contribute to several space missions for the sounding of the low Earth’s Atmosphere (in particular IASI) and also contribute to the preparation of future programs through expert studies under auspices of ESA and EUMETSAT.

UV/Vis

Ultraviolet/visible

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V

VALERI

VAlidation of Land European Remote sensing Instruments

VEGETATION

Instrument on SPOT satellite

VOCs

Volatile Organic Compounds

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W

WCRP

World Climate Research Programme

WDAC

WCRP Data Advisory Council

WMO

World Meteorological Organisation

WP

Work-package

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